A Byzantine counteroffensive launched by Emperor Heraclius in the spring of 622 shifted the advantage, and the war was brought to an end by the fall of Khosrow on 25 February 628. , From the 1st century BC, the Roman governor of Egypt was appointed by the emperor for a multi-year term and given the rank of prefect (Latin: praefectus). In 312 Constantine established Christianity as the official religion of the empire, and his Edict of Milan of 313 established freedom of worship. The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. Just as under the Ptolemies, Alexandria and its citizens had their own special designations. One element in particular was the appointment of strategoi to govern the ‘nomes’, the traditional administrative divisions of Egypt. From the reign of Nero onward, Aegyptus enjoyed an era of prosperity which lasted a century. The last ruler of the once mighty Byzantine Empire, Constantine XI Palaiologos, died in hand-to-hand combat in a desperate attempt to defend his city. Constantinople was an extremely diverse city and its resiâ¦ Within about 10 years of his visit, the persecution of Christians ceased. The Church of Alexandria split from the Churches of Rome and Constantinople over this issue, creating what would become the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, which remains a major force in Egyptian religious life today. The Sasanian conquest of Egypt, beginning in AD 618 or 619, was one of the last Sassanid triumphs in the Roman-Persian Wars against Byzantium.  Augustus and many subsequent emperors ruled Egypt as the Roman pharaohs. Emperors spoke latin and enforced Roman laws, The empire's poor people received free bread and shows. The Christian apologists Clement of Alexandria and Origen both lived part or all of their lives in that city, where they wrote, taught, and debated. The Byzantine Empire, also called Byzantium, was the eastern half of the Roman Empire, based at Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) that continued on after the western half of the empire … Aegyptus was subdivided for administrative purposes into a number of smaller provinces, and separate civil and military officials were established; the praeses and the dux. From his reign onward buildings in the Greco-Roman style were erected throughout the country. The Greeks were exempt from the poll tax, while Hellenized inhabitants of the nome capitals were taxed at a lower rate than the native Egyptians, who could not enter the army, and paid the full poll tax.. The prefect of Aegyptus in 260, Mussius Aemilianus, first supported the Macriani, usurpers during the rule of Gallienus, and later, in 261, became a usurper himself, but was defeated by Gallienus. , In Late Antiquity, the administrative and economic reforms of Diocletian (r. 284–305) coincided with the Christianization of the Roman Empire, especially the growth of Christianity in Egypt. Egypt again became the province of an empire, as it had been under the Persians and briefly under Alexander. From 619 to 628, they incorporated Egypt once again within their territories, the previous (much longer) time being under the Achaemenids. The Empire's "bread basket" now lacked protection.  After the deaths of Antony and Cleopatra, the Roman Republic annexed the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt. The new religious controversy was over the Christ's human and divine nature. Petronius even led a campaign into present-day central Sudan against the Kingdom of Kush at Meroe, whose queen Imanarenat had previously attacked Roman Egypt. :58 The prefect was appointed at the emperor's discretion; officially the governors' status and responsibilities mirrored those of the augustus himself: his fairness (aequitas, 'equality') and his foresight (providentia, 'providence'). The Roman Emperor Constantine had renamed this city Constantinople in the fourth century and made it a sister capital of his domain. Caracalla (211–217) granted Roman citizenship to all Egyptians, in common with the other provincials, but this was mainly to extort more taxes, which grew increasingly onerous as the needs of the emperors for more revenue grew more desperate. This empire occupied the southern coast of the Black Sea, and was formed following the sacking of Byzantine Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade in 1204 AD.  The status of Egypt's cites was increased, particularly the major towns of each nome (administrative region), known as a mētropolis (Koinē Greek: μητρόπολις, lit. conquered by the (Sassanidian) Iranians, and their occupation of the land He extended Byzantine rule into the Balkans, conquering Bulgaria. 'dialogue'), during which legal trials were conducted and administrative officials' practices were examined, usually between January (Ianuarius) and April (Aprilis) in the Roman calendar. In the obverse, Egypt is personified as a reclining woman holding the sistrum of Hathor. Ptolemaic Egypt began when a follower of Alexander the Great Ptolemy I Soter declared himself Pharaoh of Egypt in 305 BC and ended with the death of Queen Cleopatra VII and the Roman conquest in 30 BC. The Byzantine Empire was a vast and powerful civilization with Greek origins that can be traced to 330 A.D. The one area of the empire that was secure was the EastâEgypt, Palestine, Syria, and Asia Minorâbut that was about to change. The province encompassed most of modern-day Egypt except for the Sinai Peninsula, which would later be conquered by Trajan. ):58 The official duties of the praefectus Aegypti are well known because enough records survive to reconstruct a mostly complete official calendar (fasti) of the governors' engagements. The social structure in Aegyptus under the Romans was both unique and complicated. The Gnomon demonstrates the social controls that the Romans had in place through monetary means based on status and property. All pretense of local autonomy had by then vanished. :58 A procurator could deputize as the prefect's representative where necessary. The social structure in Aegyptus is very closely linked to the governing administration. It was invented to ensure the correct pronunciation of magical words and names in pagan texts, the so-called Greek Magical Papyri. During the 5th and 6th centuries the Eastern Roman Empire, known historiographically as the Byzantine Empire, gradually transformed itself into a thoroughly Christian state whose culture differed significantly from its pagan past. This Bucolic War, led by one Isidorus, caused great damage to the economy and marked the beginning of Egypt's economic decline. Khosrow II Parvêz had begun this war in retaliation for the assassination of Emperor Maurice (582–602) and had achieved a series of early successes, culminating in the conquests of Jerusalem (614) and Alexandria (619). Hadrian, who twice visited Aegyptus, founded Antinoöpolis in memory of his drowned lover Antinous. This was now a mere shadow of its former self, and from the late 13th century the … In AD 395 the Roman empire was divided into two halves. The Byzantine Empire and the Rise of Islam study guide by waterpololove includes 67 questions covering vocabulary, terms and more. The capital city enjoyed a higher status and more privileges than the rest of Egypt. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Territories which were held in the earlier part of the empireâs history included Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, and Palestine. Although the Byzantine Empire didn’t crumble like the Sassanid Empire, it did lose tremendous amounts of territory, including places in Syria, Egypt, and North Africa. Twenty-fourth Dynasty of EgyptTefnakht Bakenranef, (Sargonid dynasty)Tiglath-Pileser† Shalmaneser† Marduk-apla-iddina II Sargon† Sennacherib† Marduk-zakir-shumi II Marduk-apla-iddina II Bel-ibni Ashur-nadin-shumi† Nergal-ushezib Mushezib-Marduk Esarhaddon† Ashurbanipal Ashur-etil-ilani Sinsharishkun Sin-shumu-lishir Ashur-uballit II, Seleucid Empire: Seleucus I Antiochus I Antiochus II Seleucus II Seleucus III Antiochus III Seleucus IV Antiochus IV Antiochus V Demetrius I Alexander III Demetrius II Antiochus VI Dionysus Diodotus Tryphon Antiochus VII Sidetes, Roman province that encompassed most of modern-day Egypt, "Trajan was, in fact, quite active in Egypt.  The latest stage of Egyptian language, Coptic, emerged as literary language among the Christians of Roman Egypt. Years active 608–618/9. Territories of the Byzantine Empire. Introduction to Byzantine Empire: The Byzantines took their name from Byzantium, an antiquated city on the Bosphorus, the vital conduit connecting the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea. :58, To the government at Alexandria besides the prefect of Egypt, the Roman emperors appointed several other subordinate procurators for the province, all of equestrian rank and, at least from the reign of Commodus (r. 176–192) of similar, "ducenarian" salary bracket. The countless papyrus finds mark the continuance of Greek culture and institutions at various levels. Romans were protected from this type of punishment while native Egyptians were whipped. In the west, the empire lost its Italian territories to the Lombards; the Frankish people took control of Gaul and some coastal areas in Spain around the seventh century. At the same time, the Romans saw the Greeks in Aegyptus as “Egyptians”, an idea that both the native Egyptians and Greeks would have rejected. Diocletian was the last reigning Roman emperor to visit Egypt, in 302. It spanned diverse lands and peoples, the vast expanse of Russia, from Armenia to Persia, and from Coptic Egypt throughout the Islamic world. As the principal source of the grain supply for Rome, it came under the direct control of the emperor Mummy Mask of a Man, early 1st century AD, 72.57, Brooklyn Museum. 284–305). It is well documented that Alexandrians in particular were able to enjoy lower tax-rates on land.. The obverse shows a standing figure of Ivno Regina (Juno) holding a patera in her right hand and a sceptre in her left hand, with a peacock at her feet and a brilliant star on the left. In the west, the empire lost its Italian territories to the Lombards; the Frankish people took control of Gaul and some coastal areas in Spain around the seventh century. By 200 it is clear that Alexandria was one of the great Christian centres. The process by which the empire waned, and from when to mark its decline is matter of scholarly debate.  Another schism in the Church produced prolonged disturbances and may have alienated Egypt from the Empire. As Rome overtook the Ptolemaic system in place for areas of Egypt, they made many changes. Although only Roman citizens could serve in the legions, many Greeks found their way in. The Roman province of Egypt (Latin: Aegyptus, pronounced [ae̯ˈɡʏptʊs]; Koinē Greek: Αἴγυπτος, romanized: Aígyptos, pronounced [ɛ́ːɡyptos]) was established in 30 BC after Octavian (the future Roman emperor Augustus) defeated his rival Mark Antony, deposed Pharaoh Cleopatra, and annexed the Ptolemaic Kingdom to the Roman Empire. The Arabs sent for reinforcements, and in April 641 they besieged and captured Alexandria. 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